Daily Current Affairs and MCQs for UPSC - September 03, 2020 (The Hindu, Economic Times, PIB)

UN releases its first-ever guidelines on access to social justice for people with disabilities

Focus: GS1.

Topic: Social empowerment.


Context

  • The United Nations has released its first-ever guidelines on access to social justice for people with disabilities.
  • What this aims to do is make it easier for disabled people around the world to access justice systems.

Background

  • ‘Ground-breaking guidance’.
  • Those are the words used by the United Nations (UN) to describe the 10 principles or guidelines, its first-ever, that aim to enable people with disabilities around the world to access social justice.
  • What this means is that disabled people can use justice systems around the world as easily as anyone else, in line with international standards.

About the Highlights

  • The Special Rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities, the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Disability and Accessibility are the three UN bodies that deal with disability rights.
  • All three have teamed up to issue these guidelines to help countries implement existing obligations to ensure effective access to justice for people with disabilities. 

About the 10 principles

  • Principle 1 – All persons with disabilities have legal capacity and, therefore, no one shall be denied access to justice on the basis of disability.
  • Principle 2 – Facilities and services must be universally accessible to ensure equal access to justice without discrimination of persons with disabilities.
  • Principle 3 – Persons with disabilities, including children with disabilities, have the right to appropriate procedural accommodations.
  • Principle 4 – Persons with disabilities have the right to access legal notices and information in a timely and accessible manner on an equal basis with others.
  • Principle 5 – Persons with disabilities are entitled to all substantive and procedural safeguards recognised in international law on an equal basis with others, and States must provide the necessary accommodations to guarantee due process.
  • Principle 6 – Persons with disabilities have the right to free or affordable legal assistance.
  • Principle 7 – Persons with disabilities have the right to participate in the administration of justice on an equal basis with others.
  • Principle 8 – Persons with disabilities have the rights to report complaints and initiate legal proceedings concerning human rights violations and crimes, have their complaints investigated and be afforded effective remedies.
  • Principle 9 – Effective and robust monitoring mechanisms play a critical role in supporting access to justice for persons with disabilities.
  • Principle 10 – All those working in the justice system must be provided with awareness-raising and training programmes addressing the rights of persons with disabilities, in particular in the context of access to justice.

Source: Indian Express.

Goods and Services Tax Network launches auto-drafted ITC statement GSTR-2B for July

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.


Context

  • The Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN) launched GSTR-2B for the month of July 2020 as an auto-drafted input tax credit (ITC) statement which would aid in assisting/determining the input tax credit that is available for every taxpayer.
  • GSTN said that GSTR-2B is going to be an auto-drafted ITC statement which will be generated for every registered person on the basis of the information furnished by his suppliers in their respective GSTR-1, GSTR-5 (non-resident taxable person) and GSTR-6 (input service distributor).
Background
  • It is a static statement and will be made available for each month, on the 12th day of the succeeding month.
  • It is expected that GSTR-2B will help in reduction in time taken for preparing return, minimising errors, assist reconciliation & simplify compliance relating to filing of returns.

About the Highlights

  • It may be noted that the GST Council, in its 39th meeting held on March 14, 2020, had recommended to adopt and implement the incremental approach of linking the present system of filing of GSTR-3B and GSTR-1 and other significant changes like enhancements in GSTR-2A and its linking to GSTR-3B.
  • One such enhancement that the Council recommended was introduction of an auto-drafted input tax credit (ITC) statement which would aid in assisting /determining the input tax credit that is available for every taxpayer.
  • The auto-drafted GSTR-2B contains information on import of goods from the ICEGATE system including inward supplies of goods received from Special Economic Zones Units/Developers.
  • It will also have a summary statement which shows all the ITC available and non-available under each section.

Source: The Hindu.

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Kala Utsav

Focus: GS1.

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


Context

  • Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank has informed that in line with the vision of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Toy and Puppet making skills will be developed among school students.
  • He said, indigenous toy-making will be introduced as a theme in Kala Utsav to encourage students to explore and develop a variety of local toys.
  • Nishank also called for initiating puppet show in Kala Utsav for secondary and higher secondary students.

About the toys

  • He cited the examples of places like Channapatna in Ramnagaram in Karnataka, Kondaplli in Krishna in Andhra Pradesh, Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu, Dhubari in Assam, and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh which are developing as toy clusters.
  • The Global Toy Industry is more than 7 lakh crore rupees but India's share is very little in this.
  • In the new National Education Policy, a lot of attention has been given on the impact of toys on different aspects of children's lives.
  • Learning while playing, learning to make toys, and visiting toy factories, have been made part of the curriculum.

Source: AIR News.

Japanese PM Shinzo Abe resigns due to worsening health

Focus: GS2.

Topic: Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.


Context

  • Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has stepped down from his position due to his worsening health condition.
  • The long-serving Prime Minister of Japan did not name a successor. 

Background

  • Shinzo Abe has been battling against chronic disease - ulcerative colitis- for many years.
  • Abe said that he had conquered his illness initially for nearly eight years and had been able to devote himself fully to his duties.
  • However, his illness resurfaced this month and he had to visit the hospital twice in the past one week, out of which one visit lasted for almost eight hours.

About Ulcerative colitis

  • Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers or sores in your digestive tract.
  • The chronic disease affects the innermost lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.
  • There is no particular cure for the disease but it can be brought under control with the right treatment. 
  • Ulcerative colitis symptoms may vary depending on the severity of the inflammation and its location.
  • Some people may show very mild symptoms for weeks or months.
  • However, some of the key symptoms may include recurring diarrhoea with blood or pus, abdominal pain and cramping, frequent need to empty bowels, extreme fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss.
  • Ulcerative colitis is caused when one's immune system makes a mistake and starts attacking food, good gut bacteria and cells lining the colon.
  • The exact cause of ulcerative colitis remains unknown.
  • So far, as per experts, genetic factors play a huge role in passing on the disease.

Source: Times Now.

Coal Ministry organised Webinar on Coal Gasification and Liquefaction

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.


Context

  • On August 31, 2020, webinar on Coal Gasification and Liquefaction was organized by Ministry of Coal and Mines which was addressed by Union Minister of Coal and Mines Pralhad Joshi along with Anil Kumar Jain, Secretary, Coal and Dr Vijay Kumar (VK) Saraswat, Member NITI (National Institution for Transforming India) Aayog.
  • The objective behind this webinar was to discuss the road map for achieving the 100 million tonnes (MT) coal gasification target by 2030 with investments worth over Rs4 lakh crores.
Background
  • Notably, a Steering Committee has been constituted under the chairmanship of Dr. VK Saraswat for green initiatives in the coal sector.
  • The webinar was attended by around 700 delegates from Government of India, Coal India Limited (CIL) and the coal sector.

About the Highlights

  • In order to boost production of synthetic natural gas, energy fuel, urea for fertilisers and production of other chemicals, the central government has provided for a concession of 20 per cent on revenue share of coal used for gasification.
  • This will also encourage the clean sources of fuel.
  • CIL has also planned to set up at least three gasification plants (besides Dankuni) on Build Own Operate basis through global tendering and has signed an agreement with GAIL (formerly known as Gas Authority of India Ltd.) for marketing synthetic natural gas.

Source: PIB.

“MEDBOT” medical trolley developed by Indian Railways

Focus: GS2.

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.


Context

Indian Railways has developed a remote-controlled medical trolley named ‘MEDBOT’ to help deliver food and medicines to COVID-19 patients. 

About the Highlights

  • During Corona crisis, apart from providing transport facilities and essential items like foodgrains to people, Indian Railways has also provided facilities for COVID-19 patients.
  • It is providing service in the Central Hospital of the Diesel Rail Engine Factory of Indian Railways.

Source: AIR News.

CMERI Installs World’s Largest Solar Tree at Durgapur

Focus: GS3.                                 

Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.


Context

  • CMERI, Durgapur has revealed a massive new solar tree structure at its residential colony, which it claims to be the world’s largest solar tree.
  • The Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur has revealed a massive new solar tree structure at its residential colony, which it claims to be the world’s largest solar tree.

Background

  • The solar tree has been designed in a manner to ensure maximum exposure of each solar photovoltaic (PV) panel to sunlight and also creation of the least amount of shadow area beneath, an institute spokesman said.
  • The installed capacity of the solar tree is above 11.5 kWp (kilowatts peak) on a daily basis.
  • It has the annual capacity to generate 12,000-14,000 units of clean and green power.

About the Highlights

  • According to the institute, the world’s largest solar tree was believed to be in Europe till now, which produces roughly 8.6 kWp of energy, considerably lower than the tree at the residential colony.
  • The inclination of the arms holding the 35 solar PV panels are flexible and can be adjusted as per requirement and this feature is not available in roof-mounted solar facilities.
  • Each solar tree will cost Rs 7.5 lakh and the institute has invited interested MSMEs to align their business model with the PM-KUSUM scheme for farmers, for developing a renewable energy-based grid using these structures.
  • The solar tree has the capability to incorporate IOT based features, like round-the-clock CCTV surveillance in agricultural fields, recording real-time humidity, wind speed, rainfall prediction.

Source: The Hindu.

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Test your Knowledge

  1. Consider the following statements wrt Quantum State Interferography:
  1. It can help make manipulate quantum states simpler so that several crucial operations in quantum technologies become less cumbersome.
  2. The setup requires only two interferometers from which many interferograms can be obtained to reconstruct the state.
  3. A qubit is a 3-dimensional quantum system and requires usually 2 complex numbers to be determined towards state estimation. 

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

      A. 1 and 2 only
      B. 2 and 3 only
      C. 1 and 3 only
      D. AOTA

Solution: A

2. Consider the following:

  • A qubit is a 2-dimensional quantum system and requires usually 2 complex numbers to be determined towards state estimation.

    Mujibur Rahman is considered as the founder of modern:

           A. Pakistan
           B. Bangladesh
           C. Afghanistan
           D. Turkey

    Solution: B

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